Deposition Techniques: Material names A-E (met dank aan Lesker)

Initial letter of the deposition material

A   B   C   D   E  

Key of Symbols

* influenced by composition    ** Cr-plated rod or strip    ***All metals alumina coated    
C = carbon    Gr = graphite    Q = quartz    Incl = Inconel    VC = vitreous carbon    SS = stainless steel    
Ex = excellent    G = good    F = fair    P = poor    S = sublimes    D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective    RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective    DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


Material Symbol MP
(C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Crucible Coil Boat Basket
Aluminum Al 660
2.70 677 821 1010 Ex TiB2-BN, ZrB2, BN W TiB2,W W RF, DC Alloys and wets. Stranded W is best.
Aluminum Antimonide AlSb 1080
4.3 - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Arsenide AlAs 1600
3.7 - - ~ 1300 - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Bromide AlBr3 97
2.64 - - ~ 50 - Gr - Mo - RF -
Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 ~1400 D 2.36 - - ~ 800 F - - - - RF n = 2.7
Aluminum, 2% Copper Al2%Cu 640
2.82 - - - - - - - - RF, DC Wire feed and flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum Fluoride AlF3 1291 S 2.88 410 490 700 P Gr - Mo, W, Ta - RF -
Aluminum Nitride AlN >2200 S 3.26 - - ~1750 F - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 2072
3.97 - - 1550 Ex - - W W RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films. n = 1.66
Aluminum Phosphide AlP 2000
2.42 - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum, 2% Silicon Al2%Si 640
2.69 - - 1010 - TiB2-BN - - - RF, DC Wire feed and flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony Sb 630 S 6.68 279 345 425 P BN, C, Al2O3 Mo, Ta Mo,*** Ta*** Mo, Ta RF, DC Toxic. Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide Sb2O3 656 S 5.2 - - ~300 G BN, Al2O3 - Pt Pt RF-R Toxic. Decomposes on W. n = 2.09, 2.18, 2.35
Antimony Selenide Sb2Se3 611
- - - - - C - Ta - RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 550
4.64 - - ~200 G Al2O3 - Mo, Ta Mo, Ta - No decomposition. n=3.19, 4.06, 4.3
Antimony Telluride Sb2Te3 629
6.50 - - 600 - C - - - RF Decomposes over 750C.
Arsenic As 817 S 5.73 107 150 210 P Al2O3, BeO, VC - C - - Toxic. Sublimes rapidly at low temperature.
Arsenic Oxide As2O3 312
3.74 - - - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Selenide As2Se3 ~360
4.75 - - - - Al2O3, Q - - - RF -
Arsenic Sulfide As2S3 300
3.43 - - ~400 F Al2O3, Q - Mo - RF n = 2.4, 2.81, 3.02
Arsenic Telluride As2Te3 362
- - - - - - - Flash - - JVST. 1973;10:748.
Barium Ba 725
3.51 545 627 735 F Metals W W, Ta, Mo W RF Wets without alloying reacts with ceramics.
Barium Chloride BaCl2 963
3.92 - - ~650 - - - Ta, Mo - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.73
Barium Fluoride BaF2 1355 S 4.89 - - ~700 G - - Mo - RF n = 1.47
Barium Oxide BaO 1918
5.72 - - ~1300 P Al2O3 - Pt Pt RF, RF-R Decomposes slightly. n = 1.98
Barium Sulfide BaS 1200
4.25 - - 1100 - - - Mo - RF n = 2.16
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 - D 6.02 - - - - - - - - RF Gives Ba. Co-evap. from 2 sources or sputter. n = 2.40
Beryllium Be 1278
1.85 710 878 1000 Ex BeO, C, VC W W, Ta W RF, DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Powder and oxides toxic. Evaporates easily.
Beryllium Carbide Be2C >2100 D 1.90 - - - - - - - - - -
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 405
1.90 - - ~150 - - - - - RF -
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 800 S 1.99 - - ~200 G - - - - - Toxic. n = <1.33
Beryllium Oxide BeO 2530
3.01 - - 1900 G - - - W RF, RF-R Toxic. No decomposition from E-beam guns. n=1.72
Bismuth Bi 271
9.80 330 410 520 Ex Al2O3, VC W W, Mo, Ta W DC, RF Toxic vapor. Resistivity high. No shorting of baskets.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 727 S 5.32 - - ~300 - Gr - - - RF n = 1.74
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 860
8.55 - - ~1400 P - - Pt Pt RF, RF-R Toxic vapor. n = 1.91
Bismuth Selenide Bi2Se3 710 D 6.82 - - ~650 G Gr, Q - - - RF Co-evaporate from two sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide Bi2S3 685 D 7.39 - - - - - - - - RF n = 1.34, 1.46
Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3 573
7.7 - - ~600 - Gr, Q - W, Mo - RF Co-evaporate from two sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate Bi2Ti2O7 - D - - - - - - - - - RF Sputter or co-evaporate from two sources in 10-2 Torr oxygen.
Boron B 2300
2.34 1278 1548 1797 Ex C, VC - C - RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide B4C 2350
2.52 2500 2580 2650 Ex - - - - RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride BN ~3000 S 2.25 - - ~1600 P - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes under sputtering; reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide B2O3 ~450
1.81 - - ~1400 G - - Pt, Mo - - n = 1.48
Boron Sulfide B2S3 310
1.55 - - 800 - Gr - - - RF -
Cadmium Cd 321
8.64 64 120 180 P Al2O3, Q - W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta DC, RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2 456
6.92 - - - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2 721
6.21 - - - - Q - - - RF -
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 567
5.19 - - ~300 - - - - - - -
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 568
4.05 - - ~400 - - - - - - -
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 1100
6.64 - - ~500 - - - - - RF n = 1.56
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 387
5.67 - - ~250 - - - - - - -
Cadmium Oxide CdO >1500 D 6.95 - - ~530 - - - - - RF-R Disproportionates. n = 2.49
Cadmium Selenide CdSe >1350 S 5.81 - - 540 G Al2O3, Q - Mo, Ta - RF Evaporates easily. n = 2.4
Cadmium Sulfide CdS 1750 S 4.82 - - 550 F Al2O3, Q - W, Mo, Ta W RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate temperature. Stoichiometry variable. n = 2.51, 2.53
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 1121
5.85 - - 450 - - W W, Mo, Ta W, Ta, Mo RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temperature. n~ 2.6
Calcium Ca 839 S 1.54 272 357 459 P Al2O3, Q W W W - Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride CaF2 1423
3.18 - - ~1100 - Q W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta RF Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.43
Calcium Oxide CaO 2614
~3.3 - - ~1700 - ZrO2 - W, Mo - RF, RF-R Forms volatile oxides with tungsten and molybdenum. n = 1.84
Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 1540
2.91 - - - G Q - - - RF n = 1.61, 1.66
Calcium Sulfide CaS - D 2.5 - - 1100 - - - Mo - RF Decomposes. n = 2.14
Calcium Titanate CaTiO3 1975
4.10 1490 1600 1690 P - - - - RF Disproportionates except in sputtering. n = 2.34
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 -
6.06 - - - G - - W - RF n = 1.92
Carbon C ~3652 S 1.8-2.1 1657 1867 2137 Ex - - - - RF E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium Ce 798
~6.70 970 1150 1380 G Al2O3, BeO, VC W W, Ta W, Ta DC, RF -
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 1460
6.16 - - ~900 G - - W, Mo, Ta Mo, Ta RF Preheat gently to outgas. n ~ 1.7
Cerium (III) Oxide Ce2O3 1692
6.86 - - - F - - W - - Alloys with source. Use 0.015"-0.020" tungsten boat. n = 1.95
Cerium (IV) Oxide CeO2 ~2600
7.13 1890 2000 2310 G - - W - RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cesium Cs 28
1.88 -16 22 30 - Q - SS - - -
Cesium Bromide CsBr 636
3.04 - - ~400 - - - W - RF n = 1.70
Cesium Chloride CsCl 645
3.99 - - ~500 - - - W - RF n = 1.64
Cesium Fluoride CsF 682
4.12 - - ~500 - - - W - RF n = 1.48
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 272
3.68 - - 550 - - - Pt - - -
Cesium Iodide CsI 626
4.51 - - ~500 - Pt, Q - W - RF n = 1.79
Chiolote Na5Al3F14 -
2.9 - - ~800 - - - Mo, W - RF n = 1.33
Chromium Cr 1857 S 7.20 837 977 1157 G VC W ** W RF, DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride CrB 2760(?)
6.17 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Chromium Bromide CrBr2 842
4.36 - - 550 - - - Incl - RF -
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 1980
6.68 - - ~2000 F - - W - RF, DC -
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 824
2.88 - - 550 - - - Fe, Incl - RF -
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 2266
5.21 - - ~2000 G - - W, Mo W RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600C in air.n = 2.55
Chromium Silicide Cr3Si2 -
5.5 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO - S * * * * G - - W W DC, RF Flash.
Cobalt Co 1495
8.9 850 990 1200 Ex Al2O3, BeO - W, Cb W DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals.
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 678 D 4.91 - - 400 - - - Incl - RF -
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 724 D 3.36 - - 472 - - - Incl - RF -
Cobalt Oxide CoO 1795
6.45 - - - - - - - - DC-R, RF-R Sputter preferred.
Copper Cu 1083
8.92 727 857 1017 Ex Al2O3, Mo, Ta W Mo W DC, RF Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride CuCl 430
4.14 - - ~600 - - - - - RF n = 1.93
Copper Oxide Cu2O 1235 S 6.0 - - ~600 G Al2O3 - Ta - DC-R, RF-R n = 2.71
Copper Sulfide Cu2S 1100
5.6 - - - - - - - - - -
Cryolite Na3AlF6 1000
2.9 1020 1260 1480 Ex VC - W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta RF Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium Dy 1412
8.55 625 750 900 G - - Ta - RF, DC -
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 1360 S - - - ~800 G - - Ta - RF -
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 2340
7.81 - - ~1400 - - - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Erbium Er 1529 S 9.07 650 775 930 G - - W, Ta - DC, RF -
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 1350
- - - ~750 - - - Mo - RF JVST. 1985;A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 Infus.
8.64 - - ~1600 - - - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Europium Eu 822 S 5.24 280 360 480 F Al2O3 - W, Ta - RF, DC Low tantalum solubility.
Europium Fluoride EuF2 1380
6.50 - - ~950 - - - Mo - RF -
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 -
7.42 - - ~1600 G ThO2 - Ir, Ta, W - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide EuS -
5.75 - - - G - - - - RF -