Deposition Techniques: Material names G-L(met dank aan Lesker)

Initial letter of the deposition material

G   H   I   K   L     

Key of Symbols

* influenced by composition    ** Cr-plated rod or strip    ***All metals alumina coated    
C = carbon    Gr = graphite    Q = quartz    Incl = Inconel    VC = vitreous carbon    SS = stainless steel    
Ex = excellent    G = good    F = fair    P = poor    S = sublimes    D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective    RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective    DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


 
Material Symbol MP
(C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Crucible Coil Boat Basket
Gadolinium Gd 1313
7.90 760 900 1175 Ex Al2O3 - Ta - RF, DC High tantalum solubility.
Gadolinium Carbide GdC2 -
- - - 1500 - C - - - RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 2330
7.41 - - - F - - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Gallium Ga 30
5.90 619 742 907 G Al2O3, BeO, Q - - - - Alloys with refractory metals. Use E-beam gun.
Gallium Antimonide GaSb 710
5.6 - - - F - - W, Ta - RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 1238
5.3 - - - G C - W, Ta - RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride GaN 800 S 6.1 - - ~200 - Al2O3 - - - RF, RF-R Evaporates gallium in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Gallium Oxide Ga2O3 1900
6.44 - - - - - - Pr, W - RF Loses oxygen. n = 1.92
Gallium Phosphide GaP 1540
4.1 - 770 920 - Q - W, Ta W RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium Ge 937
5.35 812 957 1167 Ex Q, Al2O3 - W, C, Ta - DC, RF Excellent films from E-beam guns.
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 - - ~650 - - - - - RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Germanium (II) Oxide GeO 710 S - - - 500 - Q - - - RF n = 1.61
Germanium (III) Oxide GeO2 1086
6.24 - - ~625 G Q, Al2O3 - Ta, Mo W, Mo RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Telluride GeTe 725
6.20 - - 381 - Q, Al2O3 - W, Mo W RF -
Glass, Schott 8329 - -
2.20 - - - Ex - - - - RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold Au 1064
19.32 807 947 1132 Ex Al2O3, BN, VC W W *** Mo*** W DC, RF, Films soft, not very adherent.
Hafnium Hf 2227
13.31 2160 2250 3090 G - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Boride HfB2 3250
10.5 - - - - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Carbide HfC ~3890 S 12.20 - - ~2600 - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Nitride HfN 3305
- - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 2758
9.68 - - ~2500 F - - W - DC, RF, RF-R Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 1750
7.2 - - - - - - - - RF -
Holmium Ho 1474
8.80 650 770 950 G - W W, Ta W - -
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 1143
- - - ~800 - Q - - - DC, RF -
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 2370
8.41 - - - - - - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Inconel Ni/Cr/Fe 1425
8.5 - - - G - W W W DC, RF Use fine wire wrapped on tungsten. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium In 157
7.30 487 597 742 Ex Gr, Al2O3 - W, Mo W DC, RF Wets tungsten and copper. Use molybdenum liner.
Indium Antimonide InSb 535
5.8 - - - - - - W - RF Decomposes; sputter preferred; or co-evaporate
Indium Arsenide InAs 943
5.7 780 870 970 - - - W - RF -
Indium Nitride InN 1200
7.0 - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (I) Oxide In2O ~600 S 6.99 - - 650 - - - - - RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide In2O3 850
7.18 - - ~1200 G Al2O3 - W, Pt - - -
Indium Phosphide InP 1070
4.8 - 630 730 - Gr - W, Ta W, Ta RF Deposits are phosphorus rich.
Indium Selenide In2Se3 890
5.67 - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources; flash.
Indium (I) Sulfide In2S 653
5.87 - - 650 - Gr - - - RF -
Indium (II) Sulfide InS 692 S 5.18 - - 650 - Gr - - - RF -
Indium (III) Sulfide In2S3 1050 S 4.90 - - 850 - Gr - - - RF Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride InTe 696
6.29 - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (III) Telluride In2Te3 667
5.78 - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide n2O3-SnO2 1800 S - - - - - - - - - - -
Iridium Ir 2410
22.42 1850 2080 2380 F ThO2 - - - DC, RF -
Iron Fe 1535
7.86 858 998 1180 Ex Al2O3, BeO W W W DC, RF Attacks tungsten. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron Bromide FeBr2 684 D 4.64 - - 561 - Fe - - - RF -
Iron Chloride FeCl2 670 S 3.16 - - 300 - Fe - - - RF n = 1.57
Iron Iodide FeI2 -
5.32 - - 400 - Fe - - - RF -
Iron (II) Oxide FeO 1369
5.7 - - - P - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes; sputtering preferred. n=2.32
Iron (III) Oxide Fe2O3 1565
5.24 - - - G - - W W - Disproportionates to Fe3O4 at 1530C. n = 3.01
Iron Sulfide FeS 1193 D 4.74 - - - - Al2O3 - - - RF Decomposes.
Kanthal FeCrAl -
7.1 - - - - - W W W DC, RF -
Lanthanum La 921
6.15 990 1212 1388 Ex Al2O3 - W, Ta - RF Films will burn in air if scraped.
Lanthanum Boride LaB6 2210 D 2.61 - - - G - - - - RF -
Lanthanum Bromide LaBr3 783
5.06 - - - - - - - Ta RF n=1.94. Hygroscopic.
Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 1490 S ~6.0 - - 900 G - - Ta, Mo Ta RF No decomposition. n ~1.6
Lanthanum Oxide La2O3 2307
6.51 - - 1400 G - - W, Ta - RF Loses oxygen. n~1.73
Lead Pb 328
11.34 342 427 497 Ex Al2O3, Q W W, Mo W, Ta DC, RF Toxic.
Lead Bromide PbBr2 373
6.66 - - ~300 - - - - - - -
Lead Chloride PbCl2 501
5.85 - - ~325 - Al2O3 - Pt - RF Little decomposition.
Lead Fluoride PbF2 855 S 8.24 - - ~400 - BeO - W, Pt, Mo - RF n = 1.75
Lead Iodide PbI2 402
6.16 - - ~500 - Q - Pt - - -
Lead Oxide PbO 886
9.53 - - ~550 - Q, Al2O3 - Pt - RF-R No decomposition. n ~2.6
Lead Selenide PbSe 1065 S 8.10 - - ~500 - Gr, Al2O3 - W, Mo W RF -
Lead Stannate PbSnO3 1115
8.1 670 780 905 P Al2O3 - Pt Pt RF Disproportionates.
Lead Sulfide PbS 1114 S 7.5 - - 500 - Q, Al2O3 - W W, Mo RF Little decomposition. n = 3.92
Lead Telluride PbTe 917
8.16 780 910 1050 - Al2O3, Gr - Mo, Pt, Ta - RF Vapors toxic. Deposits aretellurium rich. Sputtering preferred or co-evaporate from two sources.
Lead Titanate PbTiO3 -
7.52 - - - - - - Ta - RF -
Lithium Li 181
0.53 227 307 407 G Al2O3, BeO - Ta, SS - - Metal reacts quickly in air.
Lithium Bromide LiBr 550
3.46 - - ~500 - - - Ni - RF n = 1.78
Lithium Chloride LiCl 605
2.07 - - 400 - - - Ni - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.66
Lithium Fluoride LiF 845
2.64 875 1020 1180 G Al2O3 - Ni, Ta, Mo, W - RF Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.39
Lithium Iodide LiI 449
4.08 - - 400 - - - Mo, W - RF n = 1.96
Lithium Oxide Li2O >1700
2.01 - - 850 - - - Pt, Ir - RF n = 1.64
Lutetium Lu 1663
9.84 - - 1300 Ex Al2O3 - Ta - RF, DC -
Lutetium Oxide Lu2O3 -
9.42 - - 1400 - - - Ir - RF Decomposes.