Deposition Techniques: Material names M-R(met dank aan Lesker)

Initial letter of the deposition material

M   N   O   P   R   

Key of Symbols

* influenced by composition    ** Cr-plated rod or strip    ***All metals alumina coated    
C = carbon    Gr = graphite    Q = quartz    Incl = Inconel    VC = vitreous carbon    SS = stainless steel    
Ex = excellent    G = good    F = fair    P = poor    S = sublimes    D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective    RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective    DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


Material Symbol MP
(C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Crucible Coil Boat Basket
Magnesium Mg 649 S 1.74 185 247 327 G Al2O3, VC W W, Mo, Ta, Cb W DC, RF Extremely high rates possible.
Magnesium Aluminate MgAl2O4 2135
3.6 - - - G - - - - RF Natural spinel. n = 1.72
Magnesium Bromide MgBr2 700
3.72 - - ~450 - - - Ni - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 714
2.32 - - 400 - - - Ni - RF Decomposes. n = 1.67
Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 1261
2.9-3.2 - - 1000 Ex Al2O3 - Mo, Ta - RF Rate control and substrate heat important for optical films. Reacts with tungsten. Excellent with molybdenum. n = 1.38
Magnesium Iodide MgI2 <637 D 4.43 - - 200 - - - Ir - RF -
Magnesium Oxide MgO 2852
3.58 - - 1300 G C, Al2O3 - - - RF, RF-R Evaporates in 10-3 Torr oxygen for stoichiometry. Tungsten gives volatile oxides. n~1.7
Manganese Mn 1244 S 7.20 507 572 647 G Al2O3, BeO W W, Ta, Mo W DC, RF -
Manganese Bromide MnBr2 - D 4.39 - - 500 - - - Incl - RF -
Manganese Chloride MnCl2 650
2.98 - - 450 - - - Incl - RF -
Manganese (III) Oxide Mn2O3 1080
4.50 - - - - - - - - - -
Manganese (IV) Oxide MnO2 535
5.03 - - - P - - W W RF-R Loses oxygen at 535C.
Manganese Sulfide MnS - D 3.99 - - 1300 - - - Mo - RF Decomposes. n = 2.70
Mercury Hg -39
13.55 -68 -42 -6 - - - - - - -
Mercury Sulfide HgS 584 S 8.10 - - 250 - Al2O3 - - - RF Decomposes. n = 2.85, 3.20
Molybdenum Mo 2610
10.2 1592 1822 2117 Ex - - - - DC, RF Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride MoB2 2100
7.12 - - - P - - - - RF, DC -
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C 2687
8.9 - - - F - - - - RF, DC Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Disulfide MoS2 1185
4.80 - - ~50 - - - - - RF -
Molybdenum Oxide MoO3 795 S 4.69 - - ~900 - Al2O3, BN - Mo, Pt Mo RF Slight oxygen loss. n = 1.9
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2 2050
6.31 - - - - - - W - RF Decomposes.
Neodymium Nd 1021
7.01 731 871 1062 Ex Al2O3 - Ta - DC, RF Low tantalum solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride NdF3 1410
6.5 - - ~900 G Al2O3 - Mo, W Mo, Ta RF Very little decomposition. n = 1.6
Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3 ~1900
7.24 - - ~1400 G ThO2 - Ta, W - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen, films clear. E-beam preferred. n = 1.79
Nichrome IV Ni/Cr 1395
8.50 847 987 1217 Ex Al2O3, VC, BeO W *** W, Ta DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals.
Nickel Ni 1455
8.90 927 1072 1262 Ex Al2O3, BeO, VC W W W DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals. Forms smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide NiBr2 963 S 5.10 - - 362 - - - Incl - RF -
Nickel Chloride NiCl2 1001 S 3.55 - - 444 - - - Incl - RF -
Nickel Oxide NiO 1984
6.67 - - ~1470 - Al2O3 - - - RF-R Dissociates on heating. n = 2.18
Niobium Nb 2468
8.57 1728 1977 2287 Ex - - W - DC, RF Attacks tungsten source. n = 1.80
Niobium Boride NbB2 2900(?)
6.97 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Niobium Carbide NbC 3500
7.6 - - - F - - - - RF, DC -
Niobium Nitride NbN 2573
8.4 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Reactive. Evaporates niobium in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Niobium (II) Oxide NbO -
7.30 - - 1100 - - - Pt - RF -
Niobium (III) Oxide Nb2O3 1780
7.5 - - - - - - W W RF, DC, RF-R -
Niobium (V) Oxide Nb2O5 1485
4.47 - - - - - - W W RF, RF-R n = 1.95
Niobium Telluride NbTex -
7.6 - - - - - - - - RF Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin Nb3Sn -
- - - - Ex - - - - RF, DC Co-evaporate from two sources.
Osmium Os 2700
22.48 2170 2430 2760 F - - - - DC, RF -
Osmium Oxide Os2O3 - D - - - - - - - - - - Deposits osmium in 10-3 Torr oxygen.
Palladium Pd 1554 S 12.02 842 992 1192 Ex Al2O3, BeO W W W DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals. Rapid evaporation suggested.
Palladium Oxide PdO 870
9.70 - - 575 - Al2O3 - - - RF-R Decomposes.
Parylene C8H8 300-400
1.1 - - - - - - - - - Vapor-depositable plastic.
Permalloy Ni/Fe 1395
8.7 947 1047 1307 G Al2O3, VC - W - DC F, Film low in nickel.
Phosphorus P 44.1
1.82 327 361 402 - Al2O3 - - - - Material reacts violently in air. n = 2.14
Phosphorus Nitride P3N5 -
2.51 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Platinum Pt 1772
21.45 1292 1492 1747 Ex C, ThO2 W W W DC, RF Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion.
Platinum Oxide PtO2 450
10.2 - - - - - - - - RF-R -
Plutonium Pu 641
19.84 - - - - - - W - - Toxic, radioactive.
Polonium Po 254
9.4 117 170 244 - Q - - - - Radioactive.
Potassium K 63
0.86 23 60 125 - Q - Mo - - Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Bromide KBr 734
2.75 - - ~450 - Q - Ta, Mo - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.559
Potassium Chloride KCl 770 S 1.98 - - 510 G - - Ta, Ni - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.49
Potassium Fluoride KF 858
2.48 - - ~500 - Q - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.363
Potassium Hydroxide KOH 360
2.04 - - ~400 - - - Pt - - Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Iodide KI 681
3.13 - - ~500 - - - Ta - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.677
Praseodymium Pr 931
6.77 800 950 1150 G - - Ta - RF, DC -
Praseodymium Oxide Pr2O3 - D 7.07 - - 1400 G ThO2 - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Radium Ra 700
5 (?) 246 320 416 - - - - - - -
Rhenium Re 3180
20.53 1928 2207 2571 P - - - - DC, RF Fine wire will self-evaporate.
Rhenium Oxide ReO3 - D ~7 - - - - - - - - RF Evaporate rhenium in 10-3 Torr
Rhodium Rh 1966
12.4 1277 1472 1707 G ThO2, VC W W W DC, RF E-beam gun preferred.
Rubidium Rb 39
1.48 -3 37 111 - Q - - - DC, RF -
Rubidium Chloride RbCl 718
2.09 - - ~550 - Q - - - RF n = 1.493
Rubidium Iodide RbI 647
3.55 - - ~400 - Q - - - RF n = 1.647
Ruthenium Ru 2310
12.3 1780 1990 2260 P - - W - DC, RF -