Deposition Techniques: Material names S-Z(met dank aan Lesker)

Initial letter of the deposition material

S   T   U   V   Y   Z  

Key of Symbols

* influenced by composition    ** Cr-plated rod or strip    ***All metals alumina coated    
C = carbon    Gr = graphite    Q = quartz    Incl = Inconel    VC = vitreous carbon    SS = stainless steel    
Ex = excellent    G = good    F = fair    P = poor    S = sublimes    D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective    RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective    DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


Material Symbol MP
(C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Crucible Coil Boat Basket
Samarium Sm 1074
7.52 373 460 573 G Al2O3 - Ta - RF, DC -
Samarium Oxide Sm2O3 2350
8.35 - - - G ThO2 - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide Sm2S3 1900
5.73 - - - G - - - - - -
Scandium Sc 1541
2.99 714 837 1002 Ex Al2O3, BeO - W - RF Alloys with tantalum.
Scandium Oxide Sc2O3 2300
3.86 - - ~400 F - - - - RF, RF-R -
Selenium Se 217
4.81 89 125 170 G Al2O3, VC W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo RF, DC Toxic. Bad for vacuum systems.
Silicon Si 1410
2.32 992 1147 1337 F BeO, Ta, VC - W, Ta - DC, RF Alloys with tungsten; use heavy tungsten boat. SiO produced above 4 x 10-6 Torr. E-beam best.
Silicon Boride SiB6 -
- - - - P - - - - RF -
Silicon Carbide SiC ~2700 S, D 3.22 - - 1000 - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred. n = 2.654, 2.697
Silicon Nitride Si3N4 1900
3.44 - - ~800 - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Silicon (II) Oxide SiO >1702 S 2.13 - - 850 F Ta W Ta W RF, RF-R For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate. n = 1.6
Silicon (IV) Oxide SiO2 1610
~2.65 * * 1025* Ex Al2O3 - - - RF Quartz excellent in E-beam. n = 1.544, 1.553
Silicon Selenide SiSe -
- - - 550 - Q - - - RF -
Silicon Sulfide SiS 940 S 1.85 - - 450 - Q - - - RF n = 1.853
Silicon Telluride SiTe2 -
4.39 - - 550 - Q - - - RF -
Silver Ag 962
10.5 847 958 1105 Ex Al2O3 Mo W Ta, Mo W DC, RF
Silver Bromide AgBr 432 D 6.47 - - ~380 - Q - Ta - RF n = 2.253
Silver Chloride AgCl 455
5.56 - - ~520 - Q - Mo, Pt Mo RF n = 2.07
Silver Iodide AgI 558
6.01 - - ~500 - - - Ta - RF n = 2.21
Sodium Na 98
0.97 74 124 192 - Q - Ta, SS - - Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.n = 4.22
Sodium Bromide NaBr 747
3.20 - - ~400 - Q - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.641
Sodium Chloride NaCl 801
2.17 - - 530 G Q - Ta, W, Mo - RF Copper oven, little decomposition.
Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.544
Sodium Cyanide NaCN 564
- - - ~550 - - - Ag - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.452
Sodium Fluoride NaF 993
2.56 - - ~1000 G BeO - Mo, Ta, W - RF Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition. n = 1.336
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 318
2.13 - - ~470 - - - Pt - - Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.358
Spinel MgO35Al2O3 -
8.0 - - - G - - - - RF n = 1.72
Strontium Sr 769
2.6 239 309 403 P VC W W, Ta, Mo W RF, DC Wets but does not alloy with refractory metals. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride SrCl2 875
3.05 - - - - - - - - - n = 1.650
Strontium Fluoride SrF2 1473
4.24 - - ~1000 - Al2O3 - - - RF n = 1.442
Strontium Oxide SrO 2430 S 4.7 - - 1500 - Al2O3 - Mo - RF Reacts with molybdenum and tungsten. n = 1.810
Strontium Sulfide SrS >2000
3.70 - - - - - - Mo - RF Decomposes. n = 2.107
Sulfur S8 113
2.07 13 19 57 P Q - W W - Bad for vacuum systems. n = 1.957
Supermalloy Ni/Fe/Mo 1410
8.9 - - - G - - - - RF, DC Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources, permalloy and molybdenum.
Tantalum Ta 2996
16.6 1960 2240 2590 Ex - - - - DC, RF Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride TaB2 3000(?)
11.15 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Tantalum Carbide TaC 3880
13.9 - - ~2500 - - - - - RF, DC -
Tantalum Nitride TaN 3360
16.30 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R, DC Evaporates tantalum in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Tantalum Pentoxide Ta2O5 1872
8.2 1550 1780 1920 G VC W Ta W RF, RF-R Slight decomposition.Evaporates in 10-3 Torr oxygen. n = 2.6
Tantalum Sulfide TaS2 >1300
- - - - - - - - - RF -
Technetium Tc 2200
11.5 1570 1800 2090 - - - - - - -
Teflon PTFE 330
2.9 - - - - - - W - RF Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Tellurium Te 452
6.25 157 207 277 P Al2O3, Q W W, Ta W, Ta RF Toxic. Wets without alloying. n =1.002
Terbium Tb 1356
8.23 800 950 1150 Ex Al2O3 - Ta - RF -
Terbium Fluoride TbF3 1172
- - - ~800 - - - - - RF -
Terbium Oxide Tb2O3 2387
7.87 - - 1300 - - - Ir - RF Partially decomposes.
Terbium Peroxide Tb4O7 - D - - - - - - - Ta - RF Films TbO.
Thallium Tl 304
11.85 280 360 470 P Al2O3, Q - W, Ta W DC Very toxic. Wets freely.
Thallium Bromide TlBr 480 S 7.56 - - ~250 - Q - Ta - RF Toxic. n = 2.4 - 2.8
Thallium Chloride TlCl 430 S 7.00 - - ~150 - Q - Ta - RF n = 2.247
Thallium Iodide TlI 440 S 7.1 - - ~250 - Q - - - RF n = 2.78
Thallium Oxide Tl2O2 717
10.19 - - 350 - - - - - RF Disproportionates at 850C to Tl2O.
Thorium Th 1875
11.7 1430 1660 1925 Ex - W W, Ta,Mo W - Toxic, radioactive.
Thorium Bromide ThBr4 610 S 5.67 - - - - - - Mo - - Toxic. n=2.47
Thorium Carbide ThC2 2655
8.96 - - ~2300 - C - - - RF, DC Radioactive.
Thorium Fluoride ThF4 >900
6.32 - - ~750 F VC - Mo W RF Radioactive.
Thorium Oxide ThO2 3220
9.86 - - ~2100 G - - W - RF, RF-R Radioactive.
Thorium Oxyfluoride ThOF2 900
9.1 - - - - - - Mo, Ta - - Radioactive. n = 1.52
Thorium Sulfide ThS2 1925
7.30 - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources.
Thulium Tm 1545 S 9.32 461 554 680 G Al2O3 - Ta - DC -
Thulium Oxide Tm2O3 -
8.90 - - 1500 - - - Ir - RF Decomposes.
Tin Sn 232
7.28 682 807 997 Ex Al2O3 W Mo W DC, RF Wets molybdenum. Use tantalum liner in E-beam guns.
Tin Oxide SnO2 1630 S 6.95 - - ~1000 Ex Q, Al2O3 W W W RF, RF-R Films from tungsten are oxygen deficient, oxidize in air. n = 2.0
Tin Selenide SnSe 861
6.18 - - ~400 G Q - - - RF -
Tin Sulfide SnS 882
5.22 - - ~450 - Q - - - RF -
Tin Telluride SnTe 780 D 6.48 - - ~450 - Q - - - RF -
Titanium Ti 1660
4.5 1067 1235 1453 Ex TiC - W - DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium Boride TiB2 2900
4.50 - - - P - - - - RF, DC -
Titanium Carbide TiC 3140
4.93 - - ~2300 - - - - - RF, DC -
Titanium Nitride TiN 2930
5.22 - - - G - - Mo - RF, RF-R, DC Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Titanium (II) Oxide TiO 1750
4.93 - - ~1500 G VC - W, Mo - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 2.2
Titanium (III) Oxide Ti2O3 2130 D 4.6 - - - G - - W - RF Decomposes.
Titanium (IV) Oxide TiO2 1830
4.26 - - ~1300 F - - W, Mo W RF, RF-R Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Tantalum reduces TiO2 to TiO and titanium. n = 2.616, 2.903
Tungsten W 3410
19.35 2117 2407 2757 G - - - - RF, DC Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride WB2 ~2900
10.77 - - - P - - - - RF -
Tungsten Carbide W2C 2860
17.15 1480 1720 2120 Ex - - C - RF, DC -
Tungsten Disulfide WS2 1250 D 7.5 - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Oxide WO3 1473 S 7.16 - - 980 G - - W, Pt - RF-R Preheat gently to outgas. Tungsten reduces oxide slightly. n = 1.68
Tungsten Selenide WSe2 -
9.0 - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Silicide WSi2 >900
9.4 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Tungsten Telluride WTe3 -
9.49 - - - - Q - - - RF -
Uranium U 1132
19.05 1132 1327 1582 G - W Mo, W W - Films oxidize.
Uranium Carbide UC2 2350
11.28 - - 2100 - C - - - RF Decomposes.
Uranium Fluoride UF4 960
6.70 - - 300 - - - Ni - RF -
Uranium (III) Oxide U2O3 1300 D 8.30 - - - - - - W W RF-R Disproportionates at 1300C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) Oxide UO2 2878
10.96 - - - - - - W W RF Tantalum causes decomposition.
Uranium Phosphide UP2 -
8.57 - - 1200 - - - Ta - RF Decomposes.
Uranium (II) Sulfide US >2000
10.87 - - - - - - - - - -
Uranium (IV) Sulfide US2 >1100
7.96 - - - - - - W - RF Slight decomposition.
Vanadium V 1890
5.96 1162 1332 1547 Ex - - W, Mo - DC, RF Wets molybdenum. E-beam-evaporated films preferred. n = 3.03
Vanadium Boride VB2 2400
5.10 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Vanadium Carbide VC 2810
5.77 - - ~1800 - - - - - RF, DC -
Vanadium Nitride VN 2320
6.13 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R, DC -
Vanadium (IV) Oxide VO2 1967 S 4.34 - - ~575 - - - - - RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide V2O5 690 D 3.36 - - ~500 - Q - - - RF n = 1.46, 1.52, 1.76
Vanadium Silicide VSi2 1700
4.42 - - - - - - - - RF -
Ytterbium Yb 819 S 6.96 520 590 690 G - - Ta - DC, RF -
Ytterbium Fluoride YbF3 1157
- - - ~800 - - - Mo - RF -
Ytterbium Oxide Yb2O3 2346 S 9.17 - - ~1500 - - - Ir - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Yttrium Y 1522
4.47 830 973 1157 Ex Al2O3 W W, Ta W RF, DC High tantalum solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Y3Al5O12 1990
- - - - G - W - W RF Films not ferroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride YF3 1387
4.01 - - - - - - - - RF -
Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 2410
5.01 - - ~2000 G C - W - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen, films smooth and clear. n = 1.79
Zinc Zn 420
7.14 127 177 250 Ex Al2O3, Q W Mo, W, Ta W DC, RF Evaporates well under wide range ofconditions.
Zinc Antimonide Zn3Sb2 570
6.33 - - - - - - - - RF -
Zinc Bromide ZnBr2 394
4.20 - - ~300 - C - W - RF Decomposes. n= 1.545
Zinc Fluoride ZnF2 872
4.95 - - ~800 - Q - Pt, Ta - RF -
Zinc Nitride Zn3N2 -
6.22 - - - - - - Mo - RF Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide ZnO 1975
5.61 - - ~1800 F - - - - RF-R n = 2.008, 2.029
Zinc Selenide ZnSe >1100
5.42 - - 660 - Q W,Mo Ta, W, Mo W, Mo RF Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well. n = 2.89
Zinc Sulfide ZnS 1700 S 3.98 - - ~800 G - - Ta, Mo - RF Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. Sticking coefficient varies with substrate temperature. n =2.356
Zinc Telluride ZnTe 1239
6.34 - - ~600 - - - Mo, Ta - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 3.56
Zirconium Zr 1852
6.49 1477 1702 1987 Ex - - W - RF, DC Alloys with tungsten. <|>Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride ZrB2 ~3200
6.09 - - - G - - - - RF, DC -
Zirconium Carbide ZrC 3540
6.73 - - ~2500 - - - - - RF, DC -
Zirconium Nitride ZrN 2980
7.09 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R, DC Reactively evaporates in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 ~2700
5.89 - - ~2200 G - - W - RF, RF-R Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard. n = 2.13, 2.19, 2.20
Zirconium Silicate ZrSiO4 2550
4.56 - - - - - - - - RF n = 1.92 - 1.96; 1.97 - 2.02
Zirconium Silicide ZrSi2 1700
4.88 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -